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Ethics in Science - The Human Cloning

"Humans could be technically easier to clone than sheep, cows, pigs and mice because humans possess a genetic benefit that prevents fetal overgrowth, a major obstacle encountered in cloning animals."
Duke University Medical Center scientists

Conception "cloning" is so vague and possible technology so various, that as soon as clone is permitted, it will be hard work to prove that somebody will have done something wrong. There are some scientists, who kept their horse sense and who do not agree with experiments on embryos. Other group of scientists is the greedy one, who assent it absolutely but on the other hand they recognize that these experiments would be used only for short period until it is discovered how to use mother cells of patients (and this is coming true) respectively how to accomplish a complete change of dysfunctional process inside cells and between them. Ethics does not attract anyone. Ethics is becoming something unwanted, something that should be "recloned" to disappear forever. The question that blends all aspects of this problem is if putting embryos to death can be regarded as killing. For the meantime abortion is legal construed as destroying something useless. No wonder that embryo with its cells is being used like a encashable piece of material. The only problem is that the exploitation of it requires to kill - actually only "switch off", because killing is not in accordance with law. The justice wants to give a feeling of innocence to everyone participating in abortion. A lot of women have completely different feeling after abortion. Is not there any difference between pulling the tooth out and abortion after all?

"Hope for the best and prepare for the worst."
English Proverb

It was only a small reflection of ethical contemplations, which are not useless like propagated by business and politics. Behaviour that breaks ethics has an inclination to diffuse very quickly and to skip into next levels of prevailing morality. Ethics loses in war and ethnical conflicts but also in exploiting embryos. Women with three or four abortions are not rare today. A woman with children (especially if she is alone) is considered like unsuitable for work but she often cannot do anything else to solve her economic situation but find a job. In European countries population is getting older and dying off. In countries where abortions are not usual population infests. Both can cause unwelcome results which state executive cannot solve. Legally accepted nonethical solutions are always results of leverage set of nonethical roots. It is not possible to animadvert people that they act according to nonethical legal norms in a way to save themselves from other nonethical consequences (nonethical law has one strange feature - it can be abused and developed to worse immorality very easily). Lets imagine ideal harmonious community without any ethical problem. Abortions of healthful germs would not exist. Would be women forced by law to supply ova and embryos of abortions for experiments? Does exist a moral (not harrowing) solution for near future?

Should human cloning be allowed in our society today? That question is up to you to answer. However, keep in mind the advantages of human cloning and forget the nonsense of "morality". *)


1) "The Human Cloning Foundation (pro-human cloning site)", http://www.humancloning.org/
2) "The Reproductive Cloning Network (cloning resources)", http://www.reproductivecloning.net/
3) "Selected Essays on Ethics in Science", http://www.chem.vt.edu/ethics/ethics.html
4) "The latest news & opinion on cloning & related issues." New Scientist, 1999
5) Salomon, J.J.: Kde jsou meze klonování lidí?, http://www.flu.cas.cz/filcasop/1999-5.htm
6) Cohen, Daniel: Cloning (Millbrook Press, 1997)
7) Dennett, D.C.: Darwin´s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (1995)
8) Tesárek, Tomáš: Křesťan a geny?!!, http://echo2000.hyperlink.cz/8/index6.html
9) Houellebecq, M.: Lanzarote (nakl. Flammarion, Paříž 2000)
10) Pecha, Tomáš: Názor na klonování, (Neviditelný pes, http://pes.eunet.cz/clanky/5278_0_0_0.html)
11) "Debaty kolem možného klonování embryí v Británii", http://news.bbc.co.uk/, http://www.bajt.cz/, http://www.zdrav.cz/
12) "Klonování - etika versus peníze", http://www.newtonit.cz/press.php?IP=37
13) "Hnutí Pro život ČR", http://genetika.prolife.cz/
14) "Should Human Cloning Be Allowed?" by LiShing L. *), http://www.humancloning.org/lishing.htm
15) Lacinová, Eva: English Proverbs (Fragment, 1996)


1) Barnett, S. A. (1998). The science of life. Australia: Allen & Unwin
2) Chellam, R. (1999, October 1). Clone research - dangerous to wish it away. The Business Times
3) Human Cloning Foundation. (1998). The benefits of human cloning. (http://www.humancloning.org/benefits.htm)
4) "The Reproductive Cloning Network (cloning resources)", http://www.reproductivecloning.net/
5) Kass, L. R., & Wilson, J. Q. (Ed.). (1998). The ethics of human cloning. Washington D.C.: AEI Press
6) Kolata, G. (1998). Clone: The road to Dolly, and the path ahead. New York: William Morrow and Company
7) Nelkin, D., & Lindee, M. S. (1995). The DNA mystique: The gene as a cultural icon. New York: W. H. Freeman
8) Rantala, M. L., & Milgram, A. J. (Ed.). (1999). Cloning: For and against. US: Carus
9) Nussbaum, M. C., & Sunstein, C. R. (Ed.). (1998). Clones and clones: Facts and fantasies about human cloning. New York: W. W. Norton

by Michal Makovec

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